The upstream segment of oil and gas industry encompasses exploration and production (E&P) activities related to exploring for, recovery and production of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids (NGLs).
ADRM Software's Upstream Oil & Gas data model set consists of Enterprise, Business Area, and Data Warehouse logical data models that address the information requirements of upstream oil and gas companies engaged in any or all of the three primary upstream functions:
The primary emphasis of exploration relates to wells: determining appropriate locations, depths and drilling and management techniques. Exploration also involves the operator obtaining leases and permission to drill from the owners of onshore or offshore property and/or drilling rights in areas considered prospective to contain oil and/or gas
Drilling involves the creation of a borehole in the ground to become an oil or gas well. Wells can be simple or extremely complex requiring considerable planning, resources and risk as with 'deviated wells' that emanate from original or 'mother' wells. Drilling work is typically done by contractors and services companies with as many as 30-40 different service contractors providing expertise and services.
Production is bringing oil and gas to the surface via one or more techniques that might include:
Oil and gas which is produced and brought to the surface is either temporarily stored locally or immediately offloaded into midstream infrastructure or transportation options such as trucks or railcars. Upstream oil and gas activities entail high risk and are information and capital intensive. Upstream oil and gas activities are also highly regulated in terms of pricing, taxation, drilling rights and reserve calculations. The primary participants are the major oil companies, national oil companies (NOC's), Independents, and oilfield services companies.
Many upstream oil and gas organizations are also involved in trading activities, often for the purpose of hedging their anticipated future production, and may therefore be interested to learn more about ADRM's Energy Trading Solution Model.